Tag Archive for: Temperature Controlled Supply Chain
The growth in healthy eating habits has led to an increase in demand for temperature-controlled logistics
Lockdowns, and the subsequent re-openings of our societies have influenced how we, as a society, approach our overall health (we’re looking at you Peleton!). This demand for healthy nutrition, which is marked by the changing global diet trends, has increased. In response to that, cold logistics has become central in the response to meet this rising demand for fresh and frozen foods.
Many of the players in the reefer industry have noted that the growing healthy consumption habits have helped sustain growth in reefer volumes post-pandemic; a growth that is expected to continue despite the nuances of a more subdued 2022. “There is a growth in demand over the last few years, and there is an increasing need in the logistics sector to move products related to that trend, whether it is health products, fresh food or frozen food,” says Cold Chain Federation UK chief executive Shane Brennan (El Mercantil, October 2022), adding that “it is clear that this will be an area of safe investment for the next five to ten years”.
A maritime growth
When looking at overall reefer trends, it is clear that the maritime leg has taken a large volume of investments in recent years. Up to 46% of global trade in perishable goods is transported by sea – and in many cases these require very specific temperatures throughout the different stages of transport (in transit, in port, or even during the last mile delivery).
Different goods also have different standards set by international organisations, and it is pivotal for transport operators to ensure that perishable goods are transported in conditions that don’t affect product quality (for a refresher on the Cold Chain, head to our blog to read up on the Introduction to the Cold Chain).
Because more and more people want access to fresh fruits and vegetables (in- our out-of-season), the reefer container business has been thriving. The El Mercantil article quotes Gregory Tuthill, the director of SeaCube (an innovative North American company specialising in the leasing of containers) as having attested to this trend. “In general terms, we can talk about a growth that is accelerating right now and that has to do mainly with products such as fresh fruit and vegetables”. This trend has “an effect on the demand for refrigerated containers.”
With more reefer containers, more storage space in ports is also needed. As an example, we can look at the Port of Barcelona. Hutchison Port’s managed BEST container terminal in the Catalan Capital has enhanced its reefer services in recent years. The terminal is now able to carry out semi-automated pre-trip inspection services for reefer containers. Repairs to any damages can also be carried out on site. “The Hong Kong-based operator is in a position to offer an integral and complete service for reefer containers, from connection and disconnection, to their monitoring, or the personalised attention to super reefers.” Similar investment in temperature controlled equipment management has been seen in other ports of Europe, and is expected to grow in the coming years.
6 keys to an effective temperature-controlled logistics
From maintaining stable temperatures and documentation requirements, to packaging and security considerations, we recommend you our spanish course in Temperature-Controlled Supply Chain Logistics in Barcelona.
For more ifnormation on temperature-controlled supply chain logistcis in spanish, download and jump on the guide:
Conocer a fondo el funcionamiento de las cadenas de suministro a temperatura controlada es fundamental para el sector. Por ello, la Escola ha creado este curso especializado, este año en un formato híbrido que combina las clases online con las visitas presenciales a las terminales y almacenes de Barcelona, lo que permitirá a los profesionales y a los estudiantes descubrir este modo de transporte.
In the past year the Cold Chain has been in the spotlight. With the mRNA vaccines getting a lot of media coverage, people from all trades sought to understand why the logistics of transporting certain types of products at (sometimes very) low temperatures proved tricky.
The Cold Chain is not a new concept. It has been used for centuries to help transport fresh products, and with the emergence of freezing technologies it made it easier to transport frozen items and medicinal products across large distances. But what exactly is the Cold Chain? Why is it called that and why do we care?
We sought to address these issues in this month’s #DidYouKnow piece:
What exactly is the Cold Chain?
The Cold Chain refers to the management of products that need to transported at stable temperatures throughout the supply chain. Though not limited to pharmaceutical supplies, it has been in the spotlight over the past two years due to the risks associated with the pandemic-related vaccines potentially deteriorating during transport that can’t support the extremely low temperatures needed to maintain their integrity.
There are four main groups of products that fall under the Cold Chain systems:
What are the elements of a Cold Chain?
At the root of it, the Cold Chain is a series of logistic management steps taken to protect the integrity and quality of certain types of perishable products. These steps range in product preparation, storage and the transport itself.
The main elements are:
- Storage – the transport begins with the storage of the products in a refrigerated facility. These tend to be equipped with refrigerated containers, chillers, cold boxes, cold rooms, and blast freezers, among other things
- Packaging – The products have lower risks of contamination if they are properly packaged. This also increases the energy efficiency throughout the whole chain. To ensure proper packaging, refrigerants are used, which include dry ice, gel packs, phase change materials, Styrofoam or gel bricks.
- Monitoring – Careful monitoring of the conditions during all steps of the cold chain is essential. Cold Chain managers can monitor things like temperatures and environmental parameters. Nowadays the Internet of Things is being used to help in these processes, and digital software that allow for the management of transport are integral to monitoring the data collected by the sensors stationed throughout the supply chain.
- Delivery – The final step of the Cold Chain is the delivery of the product – and this step may or may not involve the provision of temperature-controlled equipment by the transport operators. This depends on the preferences of the buyers and end-users.
The Cold Chain has a set of standardised temperature ranges that helps transport operators determine which methods are most appropriate for the transport of their products.
- Banana – temperatures range between 12 degrees to 14 degrees Celcius
- Pharmaceutical – temperatures range between 2 and 8 degrees Celcius
- Chill – temperatures range between 2 and 4 degrees Celcius
- Frozen – temperatures range between -10 and -20 degrees Celcius
- Deep frozen – temperatures range between -25 and -30 degrees Celcius
- Ultra low – temperatures fall below -70 degrees Celcius
What kinds of temperature controls are we talking about?
In general the temperature controlled supply chains refer to cold temperatures – which is where the term “the cold chain” comes from. Typically the products transported along these supply chains need to be kept under stable temperatures that range from 2 degrees Celcius (35 degrees Fahrenheit) to negative 70 degrees Celcius (negative 158 degrees Fahrenheit).
What are the consequences of improper cold chain management?
The Cold Chain is very important in maintaining the functionality of today’s supply chains. Failure to do so could result in discolouring, bruising and bacterial growth, as well as product degradation. All of those could then have devastating impacts on public health, as well as affect the satisfaction of the end-users (which would then drive greater demand for the products).
What industries rely on the Cold Chain?
The main industries that need to use temperature controlled supply chains are:
- Food and beverage
- Oil and gas
The European Union has come up with a set of guidelines on manufacturing and distribution practices of all products. These were designed to ensure both the safety and the quality of the products transported, and include specifications that would need to be applied to storage areas and transport equipment. For more information you can check out the EU Good Manufactoring Practices.
Want to know more? Check out these additional resources:
- The EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice, Annex 13
22 professionals from the Spanish logistics-port sector have registered to the online course on the cold chain
Following the first edition of the course on “Temperature-Controlled Supply Chains” before the pandemic began, the Escola Europea has successfully held the second edition during the last week of April and the first week of May, training professionals in the Cold Chain.
The course, which focused on the development of temperature-controlled logistics chains, allowed participants to discover and understand the best practices in the planning and execution of each stage of cold chain operations, with a particular focus on those employing intermodal transport. The course contents focused on how temperature-controlled products should be distributed (stored, handled and transported) through the distribution network (manufacturer, service providers and customers) according to the specified temperature conditions. Successful cases related to the subject were also presented, which included: Mercabarna (Barcelona wholesale markets), BEST (a container terminal), CMR Fruits (storage facilities of an importer/distributor), TmZ and Canal Frío (refrigerated rail service).
The Training in Temperature-Controlled Supply Chains aims to provide training in intermodal transport chains for temperature-controlled goods; to offer deep insights into temperature-controlled logistics, its actors, roles, market segmentation and trends; to understand what are the best practices for planning and execution at every stage of the temperature-controlled supply chain, and specifically those using intermodal transport solutions; and to raise awareness on how temperature controlled products should be distributed (stored, handled and transported) throughout the distribution network (manufacturers, service providers and customers) as per specified temperature conditions.
More than twenty transport and logistics professionals from companies such as Hapag Lloyd, Docks, Cosco Shipping, Casintra, Evergreen, Clasquin, Pamole, Fundación Cares, PMS International, Hutchison Ports and Datisa participated in the training.
Enric Rodríguez from the freight forwarder Clasquin Intercargo commented: “These have been very productive days and I have personally acquired a great deal of know-how that I intend to apply in my day-to-day work”.
Over the coming months, the Escola Europea will continue to offer technical courses, including Port Operations for goods and for vessels, Groupage and Consolidation Centres and the SURCO rail transport courses. You can view all of our upcoming courses in our online calendar.
The end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century has brought tremendous progress to social, industrial and environmental aspects of society – all as part of the larger globalisation trend. In this issue of the #DidYouKnow series we look at how globalisation has affected the ability for us to receive perishable products from the other side of the globe and made it possible for us to diversity our diets with foods from other climates.
We are talking about, of course, the cold chain. New technologies in reefer transport and logistics have made it possible for the market of cold chain products to expand. The reefer is essentially a homogeneous transport product, but it works with markets that have a very broad range of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to perishable foods (and even fresh flowers). How is it that we are able to find fresh avocados from Peru in our local (European)_supermarkets? How are delicacies from the Southeast Asian countries reaching our homes? The areas which produce the most perishable products—the southern states of the USA (California, Florida, Texas, Arizona), Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the Caribbean, South America, and Southeast Asia—have in the past faced great marketing challenges due to their distance from the major markets of Eastern and Central United States, Canada, the Far East or Europe. It is through the wonders of intermodality and temperature-controlled transport – a supply chain that ends at the door of the final consumer – that we can enjoy the tropical delicacies in the old continent.
What are the factors that need to be taken into account when transporting perishable?
Fresh products continue to metabolize and eat up their nutrients throughout their shelf life. This process begins with the harvest or slaughter, and continues through packing, distribution, marketing and the final sale. The decomposition processes are all dependent upon temperature – the higher the temperature, the faster the degradation.
“In fact, as a general rule, most of these degradation processes double their rate for each increase of 10°C ” – a vital statistic for shippers and transport operators who need to preserve the integrity of their cargo during long-distance journeys.
This so-called Q10 quotient means that maintaining an edible product’s temperature at 10C less than the temperature during which it is handled can almost double the product’s shelf life. Though this is not a universal rule that can be applied to all products (some sub-tropical fruit can suffer damages due to extremely low temperatures), it is significant enough for professionals to consider, and thus offset their their losses.
When tropical delicacies are transported to opposite corners of the world, uniform quality in both product appearance and taste are essential. This is why packaging, refrigerating, pre-cooling, and storing are vital – the inability to do effectively will result in a waste of product, time and losses in profits.
It is important to note, that alongside the refrigeration tactics used by transporters, packaging also takes centre stage – in particular in the cases of fruits and vegetables, plants, and cut flowers. Proper packaging ensures product protection during transport and facilitates transport. Improperly sized containers, for example, topped with rough handling by port infrastructures can lead to products damage. Overfilling can cause bruising and can also lead to decreased compression strength inside the container. Underfilling a container can also cause product damage by allowing for the product to move during uneasy transport conditions (rough seas, irregular road surfaces, etc).
Overall it is vital to ensure that the containers are properly packaged and prepared, with detailed considerations of the temperatures required for the preservation of the transported products. Knowing exactly what are the different stages and characteristics of this preparation will help you create a durable, efficient and sustainable cold chain.
Choosing the mode of transport
As previously hinted, the transport of temperature-sensitive goods is very particular, and therefore it is imperative to choose the correct mode of transport to ensure high quality services and product delivery. Intermodality plays a key role, as sometimes different modes would need to be used to maximise the efficiency of the cold chain. Once precooled, the items would need to be carefully loaded onto appropriate packaging and transported at stable temperatures. Therefore, the design and condition of the equipment used will need to be considered, alongside the mode of transport to be used (which depends on the distance to be crossed).
These decisions should be made in consideration with the following:
- Destination – where is the product heading
- Value of the product – are there certain losses that can be accepted by the client?
- Degree of product perishability – how temperature sensitive are the products?
- Amount of product to be transported
- Recommended storage temperature and relative humidity – important to take into account in particular with precooling and storage steps
- Outside temperature conditions at origin and destination points
- Time in transit to reach destination by air, land, or ocean transport – Refrigerated trailers and van containers are generally preferred for most high volume transports during a week or more
- Freight rates negotiated with the carriers – Services and schedules can change on a weekly basis. Are door-to-door services offered (generally the case with carriers who use containers and trailers, but air cargo has also been know to transport highly perishable goods). Air freight is considerably more costly and does not tend utilise refrigerated containers (although refrigerated air containers are used) – but the transit time is generally given in hours instead of days / weeks.
- Quality of transportation service – which can usually be gauged through past customer reviews, local trade publications, port authorities, among others.
On top of using the correct mode of transport, customers should also familiarise themselves with the refrigeration systems used to understand what kind would best protect their product. Some companies may opt for mechanical systems (which use diesel generated electric power), cryogenic (which use liquid or gaseous nitrogen), dry ice (low-cost but highly effective method to keep temperatures down), wet ice (which tend to be used as supplements to other cooling mechanisms and get placed on top of the containers to avoid product contamination), gel refrigerants (frozen containers of chemical eutectic gel to help maintain lower temperature within larger containers), ventilation (preferred for live-cargo and high – emission products as it employs a method of using air ventilation to circulate the buildup of CO2 or ethylene, etc). Though not extensive, this list demonstrates the large array of possible options that operators in the cold chain use.
From the above it is evident that the cold chain requires a myriad of additional considerations on top of the usual decisions that need to be taken when planning an efficient and sustainable transport chain. Through technological advancements we can now transport fresh vegetables from Almeria to the United Kingdom, and help transport fruit, tomatoes and other vegetables from the Northern shores of Africa and the Eastern Mediterraenean to the countries of the E.U, alongside tropical vegetables form the far East and West. All without worrying about significant product deterioration or losses.
These, and other topics, are covered in the Escola’s Technical Course on Temperature Controlled Transport. For more information about the upcoming edition, you can head to the course page, or contact us as email@example.com.
Want to know more? Check out these additional resources:
Professionals operating in the field of temperature controlled logistics need to take into account the condition of the products across all stages of the supply chain – beginning with storage and product preservation, through the transport of the cargo that is sensitive to changes in temperatures or varying atmospheric conditions, up until delivery to the customer. This broad spectrum of products includes pharmaceuticals, which need to be handled under particularly strict conditions as any changes may affect chemical stability or alter their properties, and cause serious health-related consequences to the end-consumers as a result. To ensure that these changes do not occur, pharmaceutical companies have to be able to prove that their products are transported through a stringently temperature controlled supply chain. It is vital that all parties involved, from the producer, conveyor to end customer are assured and can prove the integrity of the cargo.
The responsibilities in the temperature controlled supply chain vary among each of the parties. While the carrier needs to be responsible for preserving the transport conditions indicated for each type of medicine, the producer needs to ensure that the carrier is aware of the acceptable margins of error for temperature changes, what are the risks that may be acceptable, and what actions should be avoided to preserve the integrity of the product, etc.
Companies operating in the pharmaceutical cold chain should be kept up to date with the latest market regulations and standard rules. Due to the complexity of transporting these types of cargo, this task can be challenging. In the EU, the Directive 2001/83/EC is the foremost legal document guiding the production, distribution and use of medicinal products. In addition, other organisations regulate and establish new procedures, including theWorld Health Organization, Parenteral Drug Association, International Air Transport Association, Pharmacopeia, among others.
Though it is important to recognise that different medicines and different transport methods have their own characteristics of preparation and transport, there are general considerations that must be taken into account regardless of the pharmaceuticals being transported. This includes questions such as whether the storage facilities at the destination similar to those of the origin. Refrigerated vehicles or passive cooling systems will have to be considered to ensure the drugs not be compromised en-route. Minimising the amount of time the pharmaceuticals spend at ambient temperatures is critical, especially in warmer climates. The load needs to be securely stowed inside the transport units to ensure uniform air circulation and temperature distribution. Frequently, the use of temperature and humidity measuring devices is recommended.
Air freight temperature controlled logistics
Air cargo transport is the most popular method of transport for cargo with high levels of temperature control. Air transport is advantageous when it comes to speed issues, overcoming geographical obstacles or lack of infrastructure for other means of transport. The main weakness of this type of transport? It is extremely expensive, both in financial costs and in terms of the environmental footprint.
Sea freight temperature controlled logistics
Around 20% of pharmaceutical payloads are moved via ocean freight. Sea freight temperature controlled logistics is substantially cheaper when compared to air freight shipping. It also offers a more controlled environment in comparison to air transport. There are fewer control points and disruptions, as sea freight cargo will not be touched until it reaches its final destination. With new technologies in the maritime sector, the transport units allow tracking and monitoring in real time (a big plus for the clients!). There are few load movements, which limits the potential breaks in the cold chain and potential exposure of the products to ambient temperatures. The main weakness? It is considerably slower than air transport.
In general, there is an enormous mindset that this type of products due to their characteristics and specificities must be transported by air.
The main question thus is: Air or sea freight transport? Sea freight, done well, is an excellent mode in the right circumstances, though the same is true of airfreight. It is understandable that emergencies will always require medicines to be transported rapidly from point of origin to destination, but with tighter regulations on the temperature control and cold logistics chain in the pharmaceutical industry ensured by the maritime authorities, the gap between air and sea freight is closing in.
Intrigued? Check out our upcoming course on Temperature Controlled Supply Chains.
- Raquel Nunes – Co-Founder of YoungShip Portugal
In the second quarter of 2019 the Escola Europea – Intermodal Transport began to implement the scheduled technical courses of the year. The courses, aimed at professionals active in the logistics- port sector, began with the first edition of the “Temperature Controlled Supply Chains” course, which took place between the 6th and the 9th of May.
The course covered concepts associated with cold supply chains. Encompassing details of the common practices in planning and execution of said supply chains, the course made it possible for the participants to discover each of the steps required in these transport operations. A special focus was given to intermodal processes as well. Course contents included the distribution of temperature-controlled products (warehousing, manoeuvring and transport) through distribution networks (suppliers, service providers and clients) in accordance with their specified temperature conditions. Visits to Mercabarna (the wholesale market of Barcelona), a container terminal, an importer/distributor storage facility, a container depot, and the Border Inspection Point accompanied the theory.
In this first edition, the Port of Barcelona, Mercabarna, Barcelona Container Depot Service, Caudete Logística, Grimaldi Lines, Maritime Terminal of Zaragoza, Maersk, Frimercat, Cultivar and Martico collaborated with the Escola in the development of contents and visits. The participants comprised a dozen professionals from the transport and logistics sectors, coming from companies such as: JCV Shipping & Solutions, Noatum Maritime, COSCO Shipping, Total Freight, Saice, Agility, Arola, Dallant and Solport.
Álvaro Sánchez, a Mediterraean Reefer Specialist and a presenter in the course, stated the following about the experience: “It is a young course that can meet the knowledge needs and concerns of all participants in the cold chain and create an awareness of good practices in the handling of cargo transported under controlled temperature conditions. The combination of theory and technical visits (terminal, Depot, warehouses …) makes it even more interesting. “
In the coming months the Escola Europea will carry out the remaining technical courses of the year including: training in rail-port intermodality SURCO Operations I, from the 10th to 12th of June; training in Groupage and Consolidation Centres, between the 17th and 19th of June; and the Summer School in Port Operations, with a focus on Vessels and Cargo, from the 1st to the 5th and 8th to 12th respectively.
This week we wanted to discuss the evolution of the refrigerated container. Reefer transport, one using refrigerated trucks, trailers and shipping containers is used to ship items that require temperature-controlled environments. Reefer freight is vital nowadays due to the time and temperature sensitive cargo being shipped across larger and larger distances in shorter time frames.
Before modern-day shipping containers appeared in the mid-20th century, loading and unloading of vessels comprised very labour-intensive and time-consuming exercises. Barrels, sacks and wooden crates of various sizes and shapes were used to carry goods to the port, where they were then loaded onto the dock and transferred to waiting ships for their oceanic journeys.
Back in the 16th century seafood products were very popular but, due to the difficulty in transporting them, were limited to people living near coastal areas, rivers or lakes.
In the early 1800’s ice and salt were placed under and alongside cargo with the aim to reduce spoilage. Though an improvement, it was still impractical. Livestock was dying in transit resulting in significant profit losses for farmers. Meat products were also going off before reaching their final destinations.
- 1867. The first patent for refrigerated rail cars was granted to J.B Sutherland from Detroit. His design for reefers included a special holding area for ice at each end of the purpose built box car.
- 1876. Charles Tellier, the “Father of the Cold”, created the 1st ether-based refrigeration system to maintain a temperature of 0°C inside the boxes. Their tiny size allowed scientist to install three of them on a steamboat called “The Frigorific.”
- 1877. Another French engineer, Ferdinand Carré, perfected Charles Tellier’s system, managing to ship 150 tonnes of frozen meat over 50 days, from Sydney to the UK, in a ship equipped with compression refrigeration. The journey successfully transported all perishable cargo without any incidents.
1900’s. The 1st refrigerated vessels specially designed to transport bananas, such as the Port Morant, appeared in 1901. CO2 machines were then used to reduce the temperature and control it. This marked a decisive step forward for the transport of temperature sensitive fruit.
Mid-way through the 1930’s the first portable air-cooling unit was invented by Fred Jones. These units were placed on the outside of trucks that carried perishable foods. By the late 1930’s refrigerated trailers were reaching 38-40 feet in length.
It is not until the 1950s/60s that we entered the golden age of refrigerated containers, a real revolution in the shipping world. By then reefer transport was better controlled and new foodstuffs, such as tropical fruits or even meat, could be shipped across any ocean.
The 1970s saw the arrival of refrigerated containers especially designed to be transported by container carriers. Reefer containers existed in various shapes and sizes each were equipped with their own, separate cooling units controlling the inside atmosphere. Onboard a ship, the reefers were plugged into the onboard power supply system. At the terminals or when carried inland they were connected to reefer plug points or provided with a clip-on generator sets. This system is still largely in use today within the cold supply chain.
The Future: new systems are being created and are already in operation that make controlling various parameters of the container remotely possible. These include temperature control, accidents, door openings, alarms, etc. This type of smart technology will enable a better control of container transport from its origin to the destination.
The success of companies that transport temperature-controlled products comes down to knowing how to ship a product with temperature control adapted to the shipping circumstances and to each type of equipment used, as well as their knowledge of the requirements of each perishable goods type. We are now in the twentieth century and we are seeing a glimpse of the power that the Internet of Things has over transport equipment. At the Escola we are excited to see how the reefer containers continue to evolve and facilitate safe and rapid transport.
Intrigued? You can learn about reefer containers and temperature-controlled supply chains in our technical course dedicated especially to this type of transport. Register now here.
- Raquel Nunes, Training Programmes & External Relations Manager (Escola Europea – Intermodal Transport)
The success of industries that rely on cold storage supply chains comes down to knowing how to ship a product whose temperature needs to be tailored to the circumstances of the transport. Cold chain operations have substantially improved in recent decades and the industry is able to respond to the needs of a wide range of products. Moving a shipment through the supply chain without suffering any setbacks or temperature anomalies requires the establishment of a comprehensive logistics process that maintains the integrity of the freight.
Most of the accidents of refrigerated cargo are caused by wrong consolidation operations. To make the most of the available space and to cut costs, exporters or importers tend to use all of the space of the transport units, not taking into account that for perishable shipments two vital things have to be considered: air flow between the cargo; and the types of freight that can be combined.
Understanding the functionality of a container and air flow circulation is essential to comprehending how to export such cargo. The Escola has identified the need for training in this industry and undertook upon itself to train its students on the operations of a refrigerated container to ensure safe and intact delivery of the goods at their final destinations.
For example, a common fallacy is to assume that a refrigerated container serves to freeze the loads within in. These units are designed to maintain a steady temperature throughout the transport chain, while the goods should be frozen or correctly stored prior to collection.
Aside from the transport equipment required, the majority of carriers of perishable goods aren’t familiar with the remaining operations throughout the logistics chain. The Escola considers it essential for the companies that operate with this type of cargo to have a complete knowledge of the chain to understand how the goods control, transport, inspections and other necessary procedures are carried out. Only a complete understanding and consideration will ensure the integrity and quality of the cargo at the end of the day. To explain such a well-structured procedure, visits, case studies and practical workshops are fundamental.
All of these topics are dealt with in depth in the specialized training in Temperature Controlled Supply Chains offered by the Escola Europea, which will take place from 6 to 9 May 2019 in Barcelona. The main objective is for people to know what are the best planning and execution practices in each of the stages of the cold storage supply chain and, specifically, those that utilise intermodal transport. The legal aspects surrounding such operations are also analysed during the training.
The idea of offering a course with these characteristics arose from an analysis of the evolution of supply chains and from the demands of professionals and students alike. They called for more specialized training that would facilitate visits to the leading operators in the sector that carry out the practical parts of the operations. The course includes the active participation of companies and entities active in the sector of perishable products in Barcelona such as Mercadona, Frimercat, Cultivar, PIF, Barcelona Container depot service SL, Tmz and Port de Barcelona.
If you’re interested and want to know more, you can take a look at the course programme: https://www.escolaeuropea.eu/calendar/temperature-controlled-supply-chains/. Registrations are open all the way through to the end of April